Section 323 of the IPC – What to Do if You’re a Victim of Voluntarily Causing Hurt?

by  Adv. Rupa K.N  




3 mins


Know All About Section 323 Of The Indian Penal Code

Introduction to Section 323 of IPC

Section 323 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) deals with punishment for voluntarily causing hurt. It states that whoever voluntarily causes hurt to any person shall be punished with imprisonment, which may extend to one year, or a fine to one thousand rupees, or both. The punishment may be increased if the hurt is caused by means of any poison, corrosive substance, or explosive substance, or by means of fire, heated substance, or by means of any acid or alkali.

What are the constituents of IPC 323?

Section 323 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) deals with the punishment for voluntarily causing hurt. In order for an act to be considered an offence under this section, the following constituents must be present:

  1. The accused must have voluntarily caused hurt to another person.
  2. The hurt caused must not be grave or life-threatening.
  3. The act must not have been committed in the heat of passion or in exercising the right of private defence.

If all of these constituents are present, then the accused can be charged with an offence under section 323 of the IPC and may be imprisoned for up to one year, with a fine, or with both. It is important to note that the punishment may vary depending on the circumstances of the case and the severity of the hurt caused.

How to write a complaint for an offence under section 323 IPC?

To write a complaint for an offence under section 323 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC), the following steps can be followed:

Identify the specific provision of the IPC that has been violated. In this case, it is section 323, which deals with punishment for voluntarily causing hurt.

Gather all the relevant information and evidence related to the offence. This may include the names and addresses of the accused and the victim, the date and time of the incident, and any witnesses or supporting documents.

Draft the complaint in a clear and concise manner, mentioning the relevant facts and details of the offence. Be sure to include the section of the IPC that has been violated and any other relevant provisions.

Make sure to sign the complaint and include your contact information so that the authorities can reach you for further information or clarification.

Submit the complaint to the appropriate authorities, such as the local police station or the magistrate’s court.

Keep a copy of the complaint for your records and follow up with the authorities to ensure that the complaint is being properly addressed.

It is important to note that section 323 of the IPC applies only to cases where the hurt caused is not grave or life-threatening in nature. For more serious offences, such as those involving grievous hurt or death, different provisions of the IPC may be applicable. It is always advisable to consult a legal professional for legal advice on how to proceed in such cases.

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Delving into the Consequences: Understanding the 323 IPC Punishment

After understanding the implications of voluntarily causing hurt through Section 323 of IPC, it’s essential to shed light on the 323 IPC punishment. The IPC 323 punishment is designed as a deterrent for those who infrally the law, aiming to establish a more harmonious society. Section 323 IPC punishment stipulates that an individual convicted of voluntarily causing hurt can face imprisonment of up to one year, a fine of up to one thousand rupees, or both. The severity of the 323 punishment is determined by the court based on the circumstances surrounding the crime, making it a significant section to understand and abide by to maintain peace and safety within the community.

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Is 323 IPC Bailable or Not?

According to the Indian Penal Code (IPC), the offence of voluntarily causing hurt, as described in Section 323, is a bailable offence. This means that if a person is charged with this offence, they have the right to apply for bail before or after arrest. The decision to grant bail in such cases is at the court’s discretion. However, the court may refuse bail if it believes that the accused is likely to flee or pose a threat to the safety of others.

In general, however, the high court and supreme court of India would consider various factors, such as the injury inflicted, the intent of the person causing the injury, and any extenuating circumstances, in determining an appropriate punishment.

This offence is considered to be a minor one and is punishable by a relatively less severe sentence.

Is causing scratch marks an offence under IPC Section 323?

Yes, causing scratch marks on another person’s body can be considered an offence under IPC Section 323. This section of the Indian Penal Code pertains to punishment for voluntarily causing hurt, and it applies to any act that causes physical harm or injury to another person. Scratching someone’s skin can cause physical injury and pain, and therefore it can be considered an offence under this section.

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Is an injury report mandatory for conviction under section 323?

Under Indian law, an injury report is not a mandatory requirement for conviction under Section 323 of the Indian Penal Code, which deals with voluntarily causing hurt. However, it is generally a good idea to have an injury report in cases involving an alleged crime, as it can provide valuable evidence for the prosecution. In some cases, the absence of an injury report may make it more difficult for the prosecution to prove its case beyond a reasonable doubt. It is always best to consult with a lawyer to determine the best course of action in a given situation.

Acquittal under Section 323 IPC

Acquittal under section 323 of the Indian Penal Code (IPC) refers to a decision by a court to absolve the accused of the charge of voluntarily causing hurt. This section of the IPC provides for punishment for voluntarily causing hurt that is not grave or life-threatening in nature.

In order for an accused to be acquitted under this section, the court must find that the prosecution has failed to prove one or more of the ingredients of the offence beyond a reasonable doubt. For example, if the prosecution is unable to establish that the accused voluntarily caused hurt to another person or if the hurt caused was grave or life-threatening in nature, the accused may be acquitted under this section.

Acquittal under section 323 of the IPC may be granted by the court on its own motion, or it may be requested by the accused through their legal counsel. The court will consider the facts of the case and the evidence presented by the prosecution before making a decision on the acquittal.

In cases where the accused is acquitted under this section, they are no longer considered to be guilty of the offence and are free to go. However, the prosecution may appeal the decision if they believe that the acquittal was erroneous or based on a misunderstanding of the facts or the law.

What is the Nature of the Offence under Section 323?

The offence of voluntarily causing hurt is classified as a non-cognizable offence, which implies that the police cannot arrest the accused without a warrant. It is considered a bailable offence, allowing the accused to obtain bail easily. The jurisdiction for investigating and deciding cases under this offence lies with the Magistrate who has authority over the area where the offence was committed.

Please note that this information is specific to the Indian legal system and may vary in different jurisdictions. It’s always advisable to consult local laws and seek guidance from legal experts for accurate and up-to-date information.

What is the Trial Procedure in a Section 323 case?

  • Filing of Complaint: The victim or the complainant files a complaint with the police or directly with the court, stating the offence under Section 323 of the Indian Penal Code.
  • Investigation: The police conduct an investigation to gather evidence, interview witnesses, and collect any relevant information regarding the case.
  • Filing of Charge Sheet: If the investigation reveals sufficient evidence, the police file a charge sheet or final report before the Magistrate detailing the offence and the accused’s involvement.
  • Framing of Charges: The Magistrate reviews the charge sheet and frames charges against the accused based on the evidence presented. The charges may include the offence of voluntarily causing hurt under Section 323, along with any other relevant offences.
  • Plea: The accused is given an opportunity to enter a plea of guilty or not guilty. If the accused pleads guilty, the Magistrate may proceed to pronounce a judgment accordingly if the accused pleads not guilty, the trial proceeds.
  • Examination of Witnesses: The prosecution presents its witnesses, who are examined and cross-examined by both the prosecution and defence to establish or challenge the facts of the case.
  • Presentation of Evidence: The prosecution presents evidence such as medical reports, photographs, or any other relevant material to support their case. The defence also has the opportunity to present its evidence and witnesses.
  • Arguments: After the examination of witnesses and presentation of evidence, both the prosecution and defence present their arguments before the court. They provide their interpretations of the evidence and attempt to persuade the court in favor of their respective cases.
  • Judgment: The Magistrate considers the evidence, arguments, and legal provisions applicable to the case. Subsequently, a judgment is pronounced, either convicting or acquitting the accused.
  • Sentencing: If the accused is convicted, the Magistrate determines the appropriate punishment, considering the severity of the offence and any mitigating or aggravating factors presented during the trial.
  • Appeal: Both the prosecution and the accused have the right to appeal against the judgment in a higher court if they are dissatisfied with the verdict or the awarded sentence.

It’s important to note that the trial procedures may vary depending on the jurisdiction and legal system in place. It is advisable to consult the specific laws and seek guidance from legal professionals for accurate and up-to-date information.

People Also Read: Procedure for Trial under Section 420 of IPC

What is the Procedure of Appeal in a case under Section 323?

  • In criminal cases, there is no automatic right to appeal a judgment or order of a court, except as provided by the Code of Criminal Procedure or other applicable laws.
  • Generally, the rules and procedures for appeals in Sessions Courts and High Courts are similar, with the High Court being the highest court of appeal within a state.
  • The Supreme Court is the highest court of appeal in the country and has extensive discretionary powers in criminal appeals.
  • The accused has the right to appeal to the Supreme Court if the High Court overturns their acquittal and sentences them to life imprisonment, imprisonment for ten years or more, or death.
  • Article 134(1) of the Indian Constitution and the Supreme Court (Enlargement of Criminal Appellate Jurisdiction) Act, 1970, govern the appellate jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
  • Multiple accused persons convicted in a trial have the right to appeal collectively.
  • Certain provisions in the Code of Criminal Procedure restrict the right to appeal under specific circumstances (Section 265G, Section 375, and Section 376).


A skilled attorney can help you advise whether the charges made against you are appropriate given the facts of the case, or you may receive the lowest possible penalty.

Section 323 of the IPC provides legal recourse for individuals who have been voluntarily caused hurt by another person. 

An experienced lawyer can help you understand your rights and options available under the law and provide you with personalized advice on the best course of action in your specific situation.

Adv. Rupa K.N

Adv. Rupa K.N


5 | 277+ User Reviews

Advocate Rupa K.N, with over 24 years of independent practice, specialises in providing legal expertise, advice and guidance to a broad range of customers. Having been practising law independently for several years after doing her B.A. LLB from Bangalore University and PGDM from the National Institute of Personnel Management.

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