Legal Action Against Employee Not Serving the Notice Period In India

by  Adv. Priyanka Sampathy  




4 mins


Understanding Employee Notice Periods and Taking Action Against Non-Compliance

What is Meant by a Notice Period?

  • It is the serving time that an employee has to serve under the obligation of the contractual agreement between employer and employee.
  • Duration is between the day the employee gave their resignation and the last working day, as mentioned in the employment agreement.
  • The time can be somewhere between 15 days to 3 months, depending on the nature of the job and the position the employee holds.
  • The employer may take legal action against an employee for not serving the notice period in India for unlawful resignation or the leak of sensitive information.
  • The level of seniority depicts the days of the notice period because high seniority means more days to be completed and vice-versa.
  • The authority of the organization may take legal action against the employee for not serving the notice period in India. 

Know Legal implications of an employee not serving the notice period in India: Consult an expert

Consequences of Not Serving the Notice Period

When an employee leaves an organization, the notice period serves as a transition phase, allowing both the employer and the employee to make necessary arrangements. Not serving this notice period can lead to several consequences:

  1. Legal Action for Breach of Contract: The employment contract often stipulates the notice period requirement. Failing to adhere to this can be seen as a breach of contract, allowing the employer to take legal action against the departing employee.
  2. Withholding of Final Settlement: The employer might withhold the final settlement, which includes unpaid salary, bonuses, or any other benefits until the notice period conditions are met. This could also include the cost the company might incur to hire a temporary replacement.
  3. Loss of Relieving Letter: A relieving letter is a formal document provided by the employer confirming the employee’s exit from the company. Without serving the notice period, there’s a risk that the employee might not receive this letter, making it challenging to join a new organization or prove previous employment.
  4. Blacklisting: Some industries maintain informal networks where HR professionals communicate about employees who have left without serving notice. This can lead to the blacklisting of the employees, making it difficult for them to find jobs in similar companies or industries.
  5. Reputation Damage: Leaving without serving the notice period can tarnish an employee’s professional reputation. Future employers might view this as a lack of professionalism, which can impact career growth.
  6. Legal Fees and Damages: If the employer decides to take legal action, the employee might have to bear legal fees. Additionally, if the court rules in favour of the employer, the employee might have to pay damages, which could be substantial depending on the terms of the contract and the perceived loss to the company.
  7. Emotional and Psychological Impact: Beyond the tangible consequences, there’s also the stress and anxiety of potential legal actions, strained relationships with former colleagues, and the uncertainty of future employment prospects.

While the idea of skipping the notice period might seem appealing, especially when there’s an attractive offer on the table, it’s essential to weigh these potential consequences. It’s always advisable to have open communication with HR and management to find a mutually beneficial solution.

How to Avoid Legal Action

Avoiding legal complications related to the notice period is crucial for a smooth transition from one job to another. Here are some proactive steps employees can take to prevent potential legal actions:

  1. Understand Your Employment Contract: Before considering resignation, thoroughly review your employment contract. Understand the terms related to the notice period, any penalties for not serving it, and other related clauses.
  2. Open Communication: If you foresee challenges in serving the complete notice period, communicate your concerns with your HR department or supervisor as early as possible. Transparency can lead to mutually beneficial solutions.
  3. Negotiate a Shorter Notice Period: In some cases, employers might be open to reducing the notice period, especially if the employee can ensure a smooth handover of responsibilities. This might involve training a replacement or documenting tasks.
  4. Offer to Pay in Lieu of Notice: Some contracts allow employees to pay a certain amount in lieu of serving the notice period. If this is feasible for you, it can be a way to avoid legal complications.
  5. Get Everything in Writing: If any changes or agreements are made regarding your notice period, ensure you get them in writing. This can be an email confirmation or a formal letter. Having written proof can prevent misunderstandings and potential legal actions.
  6. Seek Legal Counsel: If you’re unsure about any terms in your contract or if the employer threatens legal action, consult with a legal professional. They can provide guidance tailored to your specific situation.
  7. Maintain Professionalism: Even if you’re leaving the organization, it’s essential to maintain a professional demeanour. Avoid negative comments about the company or colleagues, ensure a smooth handover, and fulfil any remaining responsibilities to the best of your ability.
  8. Stay Updated with Company Policies: Companies might update their HR policies from time to time. Ensure you’re aware of any changes, especially those related to resignations and notice periods.

While the notice period can be a challenging phase, taking a proactive and informed approach can help employees navigate it without legal complications. Remember, the goal is to leave on good terms, ensuring a positive reference for future employment opportunities.

Medical Grounds & Health Reasons in the Context of Indian Labour Laws

Life is unpredictable, and sometimes, health challenges can arise unexpectedly. In such scenarios, serving a notice period can become a daunting task, both physically and mentally. Here’s how employees can navigate the notice period when faced with medical issues, keeping in mind the nuances of Indian labour laws:

  1. Immediate Communication: If you face a sudden health issue that prevents you from fulfilling your duties, inform your HR department and supervisor as soon as possible. Early communication can lead to understanding and flexibility from the employer’s side.
  2. Provide Medical Documentation: To validate your claims, provide relevant medical certificates or doctor’s notes that explain the nature of your health condition and the recommended recovery time. This documentation can serve as evidence and might be necessary for any negotiations or discussions with the employer.
  3. Request for Remote Work or Adjusted Duties: Depending on the nature of your job and health condition, you might be able to perform some tasks remotely or with adjustments. Discuss the possibility of temporary remote work or a change in responsibilities that aligns with your current health status.
  4. Negotiate a Modified Notice Period: In light of genuine health concerns, some employers might be open to reducing the notice period or allowing flexibility in how it’s served. This could involve a combination of remote work, adjusted duties, or even a shorter notice period.
  5. Legal Protections: In some jurisdictions, employees with health issues might be protected by labour laws or disability regulations. It’s essential to be aware of your rights and any legal protections available to you in such situations.
  6. Seek Legal Counsel: If you believe that your employer is not accommodating your health condition or if you face threats of legal action, consult with a legal professional. They can provide guidance tailored to your specific situation and help you understand your rights.
  7. Maintain Open Communication: Throughout the process, maintain open communication with your employer. Regular updates about your health status and recovery can foster understanding and empathy.

While health challenges can be overwhelming, employees have options and rights when serving the notice period. By understanding the legal landscape in India and taking a proactive approach, employees can navigate this phase with dignity and understanding.

Advice from Advocates: Expert Opinions on the Notice Period

Navigating the complexities of the notice period can be challenging. To provide our readers with a well-rounded perspective, we reached out to several legal experts for their insights on the matter. Here’s what they had to say:

  1. Advocate Aarav Khanna: “The employment contract is a binding legal document. While employees have rights, they also have obligations. Not serving the notice period can lead to legal repercussions unless there’s a valid reason, like health issues, backed by proper documentation.”
  2. Advocate Priya Malhotra: “In many cases, open communication between the employee and employer can resolve notice period disputes. It’s always advisable to approach the situation with understanding and a willingness to find a middle ground.”
  3. Advocate Rajesh Verma: “Employees often overlook the importance of the relieving letter. Not serving the notice period can jeopardize this crucial document, making it difficult for them to secure future employment.”
  4. Advocate Sanya Gupta: “While the legal route is an option for employers, it’s often the last resort. Litigation is time-consuming and costly. Employers generally prefer an amicable resolution, such as payment in lieu of the notice period or a shorter notice period.”
  5. Advocate Karan Oberoi: “It’s essential for employees to be aware of their rights. In certain situations, like when the work environment is toxic or detrimental to their health, they might have legal grounds to resign without serving the full notice period.”

In conclusion, the notice period is a multifaceted issue with both legal and ethical implications. Whether you’re an employer or an employee, understanding the nuances and seeking expert advice can help you navigate this transitional phase smoothly.

Lawful Standpoint on Notice Periods

Contractual Restrictions:

  • Organizations and employers have specific limitations when requiring an employee to serve a notice period. This is only applicable if a written contract mentions such a clause.
  • The labour law provisions discuss compensation, notice periods, and potential legal actions against employees not adhering to the notice period.

Constitutional Rights:

  • The Constitution of India provides certain fundamental rights that are pivotal in understanding the legal actions a citizen can undertake.
  • Article 19 safeguards the rights of citizens to work in any trade, business, or profession. It also protects them from legal repercussions related to the notice period.
  • Article 13 states that agreements are void if they conflict with fundamental rights.

Specific Relief Act 1963:

  • This act restricts the enforcement of personal service contracts in court.
  • The employer’s action to claim any recovery “in lieu of” the notice period is limited and largely depends on the employee’s decision.
  • Section 41 of the act offers relief to a party with substantial evidence against the opposing party.

Indian Contract Act Section 27:

  • Agreements restricting anyone from entering a profession, trade, service, or business are deemed invalid.
  • Employment contracts are legally binding for both parties based on various terms and conditions.
  • If there’s a separation clause with the term “in lieu of” related to payment against the notice period, the employer cannot pressurize an employee to continue working. In such cases, the employer must provide a relieving letter, given the employee follows the organization’s rules and regulations.

Legal Recourse:

  • Employees can approach the High Court or Supreme Court if they believe they’re subjected to wrongful legal action regarding the notice period.

Know Your Rights and Options as an Employer: Consult an Expert

Necessary Steps or Remedies for an Organisation

  • In cases where an employee suddenly resigns and is seeking to exit the job early without any prior arrangement or notice and is not serving the required notice period, it harms the entire work process, output, management, and efficiency.
  • Many other significant changes and damages unknowingly happen in sudden relieving hindrance. HR needs to rush to find someone suitable to replace the vacant position as soon as possible or take legal action against the employee for not serving the notice period in India.
  • The problems are much more serious if the person who is resigning is a part of the core data handler or knows sensitive information and passwords.
  • There might be a possible leak of prohibited data from the leaving employee, and so HR must make sure to save the interests and assets of the organization by taking necessary legal action against the employee not serving the notice period in India.
  • The employer should clearly state the company rules and regulations along with every term and condition that might be needed for the period the employee serves and what follows when he/she resigns.
  • They must mention why legal action against the employee not serving a notice period in India might be taken as the company deals with sensitive information through the employees.
  • The employees may take legal help by hiring a lawyer online and understanding how each clause works and what it defines to avoid future complications and disputes.
  • The employer should try to add a buyout clause somewhere in the contract to give the resigning employee some flexibility and an acceptable notice period for their interest, too, and to add a new professional promptly and avoid legal action against the employee not serving the notice period in India.
  • The employee should treat every employee fairly, even if one wants to leave the organization for personal reasons.
  • They must be acknowledged, and chances to take legal action against employees not serving notice periods in India can be avoided. The employer and employee can hire a lawyer online to review their contract for better assessment.

Speak to Our Experts on Legal Consequences of Not Serving Notice Period


HR has the main goal of maintaining the workflow and order in the organization by managing the outgoing and incoming employees with fair treatment and robust inter-scale management. This can help reduce the number of legal actions against the employee not serving the notice period in India.

If any employer or employee has any kind of trouble deciphering any clause in the contract, they can hire a legal professional who can sort out their queries on time.

Adv. Priyanka Sampathy

Adv. Priyanka Sampathy


5 | 163+ User Reviews

Priyanka Sampathy is a legal consultant who prioritises ethical and professional conduct while striving to achieve desired outcomes. With over 15 years of independent practice, she has significant expertise in handling legal cases. Her exceptional communication skills enable her to express arguments in a clear and persuasive manner, both in writing and verbally, in Hindi, English, and Telugu.

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