FCFF & FCFE Valuation

by  Adv. Priyanka Sampathy  




5 mins


Unveiling Company Value with FCFF & FCFE Valuation

Business valuation is essential for determining what a business is worth. Various methods can be used to determine this value, and one of them is the Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) method. This blog will focus on Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF) and Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE), which are integral components of the DCF method.

What is the Discounted Cash Flow Method?

The Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) method estimates the value of an asset or business using future cash flows. It helps determine the potential future value of an asset, investment, or business. The DCF analysis involves calculating the present value of expected future cash flows to evaluate the company and its assets. The key components of DCF are FCFF and FCFE, which need to be calculated separately.

Traditional valuation methods can have limitations. Our FCFF valuation expertise provides a forward-looking assessment, considering your company's future growth potential and cash flow generation.

What is FCFF?

Free Cash Flow to the Firm (FCFF), also known as unlevered free cash flow, represents the cash flow available to all investors, including debt holders and equity holders. It indicates the cash available to the company if it were debt-free.

Key Aspects of FCFF:

  • Indicates the company’s financial health
  • Positive FCFF means cash remains after all expenses, taxes, investments, and working capital operations
  • Negative FCFF indicates potential financial issues or high investment in growth

Formulas for Calculating FCFF:

  • FCFF = EBIT * (1 – Tax Rate) + Non-Cash Expenses – Changes in Operating Assets & Liabilities – CapEx
  • FCFF = Cash Flow from Operations + Tax Adjusted Interest Expense – CapEx
  • FCFF = Net Income + Tax Adjusted Interest Expense + Non-Cash Expenses – Changes in Operating Assets & Liabilities – CapEx

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What is FCFE?

Free Cash Flow to Equity (FCFE) is a levered cash flow method that calculates the cash available to equity shareholders after accounting for all expenses, debt payments, and reinvestments.

Key Aspects of FCFE:

  • Used for companies that do not pay dividends
  • Helps in equity valuation and assessing dividend payment capacity
  • Indicates the company’s ability to buy back shares or pay dividends from free cash flow

Formulas for Calculating FCFE:

  • FCFE = Cash from Operations – CapEx + Net Debt Issued
  • FCFE = Net Income + Non-Cash Charges – Changes in Operating Assets & Liabilities – CapEx + Net Debt Issued (Repaid)

Don't base your investments on guesswork. Our team of FCFF valuation specialists delivers accurate and insightful reports, empowering you to make informed investment decisions with confidence.

Practical Applicability of FCFF and FCFE

  • FCFF: Used to estimate the overall value of a company’s operations, considering the perspectives of all investors.
  • FCFE: Used in equity valuation to determine the fair value of the company’s stock, focusing on cash flows directed to equity owners.

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MeaningCash flow available to debt holders, stockholders, and investorsCash flow available to equity shareholders after expenses, debt, and reinvestment
FormulaFCFF = Cash Flow from Operations + Tax Adjusted Interest Expense – CapExFCFE = Cash from Operations – CapEx + Net Debt Issued
Also known asUnlevered free cash flowLevered free cash flow
Capital StructureUnaffected by changes in capital structureAffected by changes in capital structure
ImpactExcludes interest expense and repaymentsIncludes interest expense and repayments
Discount RateWACC (Weighted Average Cost of Capital)Cost of equity
AnalysisOverall value of the firmValue of equity shares
ValuationEnterprise valueEquity value

Our FCFF valuation reports are detailed and meticulous, providing a clear advantage in negotiations and attracting investors. Stand out from the competition with a reliable assessment of your company's future cash flows.


The DCF analysis is vital for business valuation, focusing on FCFF and FCFE. FCFF represents cash flow available to all investors, while FCFE represents cash flow available to equity shareholders. Understanding the differences and applications of FCFF and FCFE is crucial for making informed financial decisions and accurate valuations.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What do FCFF and FCFE stand for?

Ans1. FCFF stands for Free Cash Flow to Firm and FCFE stands for Free Cash Flow to Equity.

Q2. What is the difference between FCFF and FCFE valuation?

Ans2. FCFF does not consider interest expenses and repayments, while FCFE includes these factors.

Q3. What is the formula for FCFE valuation?

Ans3. FCFE = Cash from Operations – CapEx + Net Debt Issued

Q4. Why do we use FCFF in DCF?

Ans4. FCFF is used in DCF analysis to determine the overall value of the business by considering future cash flows and growth rates.

Q5. What if FCFE is higher than FCFF?

Ans5. FCFE cannot be higher than FCFF because FCFF includes all operating expenses and necessary deductions to maintain operational efficiency.

Our team possesses unparalleled expertise in FCFF valuation, using advanced financial modeling techniques to deliver accurate and reliable results. We are committed to providing you with the highest quality FCFF valuations you can trust.

Adv. Priyanka Sampathy

Adv. Priyanka Sampathy


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Priyanka Sampathy is a legal consultant who prioritises ethical and professional conduct while striving to achieve desired outcomes. With over 15 years of independent practice, she has significant expertise in handling legal cases. Her exceptional communication skills enable her to express arguments in a clear and persuasive manner, both in writing and verbally, in Hindi, English, and Telugu.

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