ESOPs and Their Tax Advantages: A Guide 

by  Adv. Anamika Chauhan  




10 mins


Unlocking Tax Savings: A Guide to ESOP Benefits for Shareholders

Corporate life is changing, to sustain themselves in the market, companies are constantly working on innovative ideas; putting their efforts to maintain the interests of both employees and shareholders. They work better when they consider the company as their own. Thus, ESOPs have become a growing trend. ESOPs are considered one of the feasible options for the company. This blog focuses on ESOP and its tax benefits. 

Understanding ESOPs

ESOP stands for employee stock ownership plan. It is a plan which focuses on giving shares of the company to its employees. Under this, the employees are given stocks at low costs or nominal costs. These are usually treated as an incentive or compensation packages to the employees.

It is generally put up into a trust fund and stays there till the employees want to exercise it or the employee wants to take retirement from the company. it can be considered as a profit-sharing plan thus coordinating the shareholder’s and employee’s interests.  It can take the form of various options like direct purchase programs, stock options, restricted stock, phantom stock, and stock appreciation rights. 

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Tax Benefits Overview

Tax Deductions

The most noteworthy gain a company can get from ESOP is the tax deductions. The company gets tax deductions against the share’s market value. Thus, it provides a tax-efficient method for the company to grow financially.  It helps the company to make reductions in taxes as much as possible.

Tax Deferred Contributor

The employees are allowed to get the shares without any liability attached through ESOP. The employees won’t have to pay for them till the time of distribution comes as it is in the form of a trust fund, thus allowing for the postponement of the tax paying. This is considered a useful tool in terms of finance as the deferral would allow savings of tax until there is a selling of the shares.

Tax-free rollover

There is a great benefit from ESOPS by selling the shareholders. It allows the deferment of capital gains taxes by shareholders which is an extra edge over the other methods.

Tax incentives

This also provides employees with tax benefits as well.  An employee can get some tax incentives for selling their ESOP shares, which in turn provide a propitious result for them.

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Non-tax benefits of ESOP

Retention of talent

It becomes easier to retain talent in the company as employees can exercise their ESOPs only after completing the vesting period. Thus, they have to stay to get the full benefits of the ESOP.

Boosting Productivity

 It also helps in boosting productivity as the employees will also gain from the total revenue generated by the company. The ESOP’s help in boosting their productivity thus making the company earn more profits.

Attract Employees

 It is an instrument that can be used to lure more employees as well as make them stay in the company for long. Many start-ups are using ESOPs to attract more and more talent as giving a huge package to them in the starting is not possible.


It helps in the creation of wealth. With the growth of the company, the share’s value also increases which in turn provides a huge potential for the employees to create a significant amount of wealth. Thus, helping them with their financial well-being and opportunities occurring in the future.


This also helps in creating a culture of the company where there is a share of responsibilities as well as an open environment for the operation thus having cooperation between all the employees and with the company as well.

Corporate Governance

It fosters good corporate governance in the company as it tries to involve the employees in the process of decision-making, which in turn makes them feel that they are being involved in all the major decisions of the company.

Public Image

The companies providing ESOP often have a nice public image, as they are being acknowledged for their commitment to the well-being of the employees. It helps in maintaining prestige in the society.

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Capital Gains Tax Implications

There are various factors on which the ESOP’s capital gains tax implications depend upon. There is no tax implication at the stage when the shares are exercised by the employees at the exercise price, thus there is not any kind of capital gaining or losses of any form. The key benefit of ESOP is that any kind of capital gain can be deferred till the time there is selling of the shares by the employees.

There are two types of capital gains. 

  1. Short Term

The short-term gain occurs when there is the sale of the shares within 24 months from the allotment date or the date of transfer.

  1. Long Term

 In case the shares are held for more than 24 months and then sold, then it is considered as long-term capital gains.

The ESOP helps them evade the capital gain tax, which is an effective instrument to plan in the long term. The tax planning can allow the employees to minimize their capital gains tax liability or try to use deductions or exemptions provided under the regulatory framework.

The progressive liquidation scheme is advantageous for the shareholders in ESOP. As the employees get towards the time of their retirement there can be a deferment of taxes on the capital gains for several years, which a result would lead to overall savings.

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Qualifications and Requirements

Certain requirements and qualifications are required to be fulfilled to participate in ESOP. 

Legal Framework

The ESOPs should be put to working as per the regulatory framework of the country which generally involves a trust fund to be set up. A company should also be eligible by the regulatory framework to form an ESOP depending on the structure, size, industry, and many other factors. 

Employee Eligibility

For an employee to participate in an ESOP, certain eligibility criteria have to be met like the duration of the employment or what may be the employment status. Every company would have its eligibility criteria, some of them may have while others won’t have any eligibility criteria.

Vesting Requirements

ESOPs generally have a set vesting period that ascertains at what period of employment the employees can have full ownership of the shares that have been allocated to them. This generally depends upon years of service or a vesting schedule. The shareholders should be well known with these schedules, for them to get maximum benefit.

Participation in ESOP

If the employee wants to reap all the tax benefits related to ESOP, then they must participate in the ESOP trust. The tax benefits are for both the employees as well as the company.  The company can enjoy tax deductions through ESOP contributions and employees would be able to tax defer on the capital gains in some situations. 

Regulatory Framework

The employees who want to reap the advantages of tax benefits through ESOP need to follow the Internal Revenue Code Guidelines. These guidelines ensure that the ESOP is in adherence to all legal requirements and tax benefits are as per the law. The ESOP can be sold by the employees in adherence to some qualifications like a minimum ratio of shares can be sold.

Legal Advisors

There should be proper ESOP plan design and documentation to meet the regulations. There can be a lot of complicacies in ESOPs and their tax-related consequences. To deal with them one needs to have a consultation with financial and legal advisors to make sure that it is the most suitable tax planning for the employees

Our in-depth analysis and industry-leading expertise provide you with a clear picture of your ESOP's true value. This empowers you to make informed decisions regarding tax strategy and future growth.


As we try to know the concept of ESOPs it’s such a dynamic world full of potential growth and financial wise. The ESOPs are more useful for companies with a long-term objective in the corporate sector and to achieve the long-term objective, the companies use ESOPs to retain the talent and attract more. Every company’s ESOP is different so the employees need to understand all the small details linked to it otherwise it can be a little frustrating for the employees. They need to understand the tax-related ramifications to have a viable financial outcome.

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Frequently Asked Questions

Q1. What does ESOP stand for?

Ans1.  ESOP stands for Employment Stock Options Plan.

Q2. What are the tax benefits for shareholders in ESOPs?

Ans2. The Tax benefits that are associated with ESOP shareholders are deferred capital gains taxes as well as no tax on rollovers. There can be a deferment of capital gains as well thus fulling using the ESOP. When there are no rollovers there is a provision for postponing the taxes for reinvestment.  

Q3. What are the negative aspects of ESOPs?

Ans3. There can be limitations on the price per share. The employees have to exit the firm by the terms of ESOP for all the benefits that can be restricted to the employee. The value of shares is also consistent as it goes up and down based on the company’s growth and success.

Q4. How can employees maximize the tax benefits from ESOPs?Ans4. The employees need to consider many methods while trying to sell the shares to get maximum benefits.  The employees must keep themselves updated with all the new provisions and follow them.  They should also focus on the deferred and Tax rollovers for reinvestment purposes.

We understand the importance of ESOP compliance. Let us handle the complexities of valuation, freeing you to focus on core business activities.

Adv. Anamika Chauhan

Adv. Anamika Chauhan


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Advocate Anamika Chauhan has been practising law independently for the last 5 years, during which she has gained extensive experience in handling cases. She offers legal consultancy and advisory services with a focus on achieving ethical and professional results. In addition, her excellent communication skills allow her to articulate arguments persuasively in both written and verbal forms.

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